Mechanistic Insights into Phosphoactivation of SLAC1 in Guard Cell Signaling
    作者: Li Qin, Yanan Deng, Xiangyun Zhang, Linghui Tang, Chunrui Zhang, Shimin Xu, Ke Wang, Meihua Wang, Xianhui Zhang, Min Su, Qi Xie, Wayne A. Hendrickson, Yuhang Chen
    刊物名称: PNAS
    Stomata in leaves regulate gas (carbon dioxide and water vapor) exchange and water transpiration between plants and the atmosphere. SLow Anion Channel 1 (SLAC1) mediates anion efflux from guard cells and plays a crucial role in controlling stomatal aperture. It serves as a central hub for multiple signaling pathways in response to environmental stimuli, with its activity regulated through phosphorylation via various plant protein kinases. However, the molecular mechanism underlying SLAC1 phosphoactivation has remained elusive. Through a combination of protein sequence analyses, AlphaFold-based modeling and electrophysiological studies, we unveiled that the highly conserved motifs on the N- and C-terminal segments of SLAC1 form a cytosolic regulatory domain (CRD) that interacts with the transmembrane domain(TMD), thereby maintaining the channel in an autoinhibited state. Mutations in these conserved motifs destabilize the CRD, releasing autoinhibition in SLAC1 and enabling its transition into an activated state. Our further studies demonstrated that SLAC1 activation undergoes an autoinhibition-release process and subsequent structural changes in the pore helices. These findings provide mechanistic insights into the activation mechanism of SLAC1 and shed light on understanding how SLAC1 controls stomatal closure in response to environmental stimuli.